Schizophrenia

Contents

  1. Introduction Clinical features
  2. Table  11.1 Common symptoms of acute  schizophrenia
  3. Table  11.2 Features of chronic schizophrenia
  4. The  acute syndrome
  5. Table  11.3 Schneider’s symptoms of the first  rank
  6. The  chronic syndrome
  7. Subtypes of schizophrenia
  8. Type  I and type II schizophrenia
  9. Three  clinical sub-syndromes
  10. Other aspects of the clinical syndrome Cognitive features
  11. Table  11.4 Cerebral and psychological correlates of three sub-syndromes of chronic   schiz
  12. Depressive symptoms
  13. Neurological signs
  14. Olfactory dysfunction
  15. Water intoxication
  16. Pain insensitivity
  17. Factors that modify the clinical  features
  18. The  prodrome  of schizophrenia
  19. Historical development of ideas about  schizophrenia
  20. Classification of schizophrenia in DSM-IV and  ICD-10
  21. DSM-IV
  22. Table 11.5 Classification of schizophrenia and schizophrenia-like disorders in ICD-10 and D
  23. ICD-10
  24. Table  11.7 Criteria for schizophrenia in ICD–10
  25. Summary of the differences between DSM-IV and  ICD-10
  26. Schizophrenia-like disorders
  27. Brief disorders
  28. Schizophrenia-like  disorders with prominent affective  symptoms
  29. Persistent disorders without all of the required symptoms for   schizophrenia
  30. Comorbidity
  31. Differential diagnosis
  32. Epidemiology
  33. Incidence
  34. Prevalence
  35. Age at onset
  36. Gender
  37. Fertility
  38. Other aspects of schizophrenia  epidemiology
  39. Aetiology
  40. Overview
  41. Genetics
  42. Table  11.8 Examples of aetiological factors and theories in  schizophrenia
  43. Table  11.9 Approximate lifetime risk  of developing schizophrenia for relatives of a proba
  44. Twin studies
  45. Table 11.10 Lifetime risk of developing psychiatric disorder in first-degree relatives of p
  46. Adoption studies
  47. The  mode of inheritance
  48. What is heritable?
  49. Schizophrenia susceptibility genes
  50. Crow’s  lateralization hypothesis
  51. The  biology of schizophrenia genes
  52. Table  11.11 Susceptibility loci and genes for  schizophrenia
  53. Obstetric complications
  54. Maternal influenza and other infections
  55. Maternal malnutrition
  56. Winter birth
  57. Paternal age
  58. Child development
  59. Substance use
  60. Other risk factors
  61. Neurobiology
  62. Structural brain changes
  63. Structural imaging
  64. Table  11.12 Summary of structural brain changes in  schizophrenia
  65. Neuropathology
  66. Functional brain imaging
  67. Cerebral blood flow
  68. BOLD signal on fMRI
  69. Neurophysiological findings
  70. Electroencephalography
  71. Sensory evoked potentials: P300 and P50
  72. Eye tracking
  73. Neurochemical findings
  74. Dopamine
  75. Glutamate
  76. Table  11.13 Evidence for glutamatergic involvement in  schizophrenia
  77. Serotonin (5-HT)
  78. Social and psychosocial factors
  79. Occupation and social class
  80. Place  of residence
  81. Migration and ethnicity
  82. Social isolation
  83. Life  events and difficulties
  84. Childhood trauma
  85. Psychological factors
  86. Personality factors
  87. Neuropsychological factors
  88. Dynamic and interpersonal factors
  89. Box 11.4 Psychodynamic and family theories of aetiology
  90. Current aetiological hypotheses about schizophrenia
  91. Neurodevelopmental hypothesis
  92. Aberrant connectivity
  93. Stress-vulnerability model
  94. Table  11.14 Findings that support the neurodevelopmental hypothesis of   schizophrenia
  95. Physical health, mortality, and suicide in  schizophrenia
  96. Predictors of outcome
  97. Geographical variation in course
  98. Table  11.15 Factors that predict a poor outcome of  schizophrenia
  99. Life events
  100. Social stimulation
  101. Family life and expressed emotion
  102. Effects of schizophrenia on the  family
  103. Treatment
  104. Pharmacological treatments
  105. Acute schizophrenia
  106. Table  11.16 Key recommendations in the pharmacological treatment of  schizophrenia
  107. Treatment after the acute phase
  108. Differences between antipsychotic drugs
  109. Treatment-resistant  schizophrenia
  110. Antidepressants  and mood stabilizers
  111. Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)
  112. Psychosocial approaches
  113. Family therapy
  114. Table  11.17 Current psychosocial interventions for schizophrenia
  115. Table  11.18 Elements of family intervention in  schizophrenia
  116. Social skills training and illness  self-management
  117. Treatment of cognitive  impairments
  118. Dynamic psychotherapy
  119. Interaction of drug and psychosocial treatments
  120. Management
  121. Table  11.19 Components and principles of the management of  schizophrenia
  122. Choice of antipsychotic drug
  123. Aftercare  of ‘good prognosis’ patients
  124. Aftercare of ‘poor prognosis’ patients without major  impairments
  125. Patients with a poor prognosis and significant   impairments
  126. Other aspects of management
  127. Early intervention
  128. Substance misuse
  129. The  violent patient
  130. Suicide risk
  131. Discussing schizophrenia with patients and their carers

 

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